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    CSRS
    The material presented at the CSRS Annual Meetings has been made available by the Cervical Spine Research Society for educational purposes only. The material is not intended to represent the only, nor necessarily best method or procedure appropriate for the medical situations discussed, but rather is intended to present an approach, view, statement or opinion of the faculty which may be helpful to others who face similar situations. The CSRS disclaims any and all liability for injury or other damages resulting to any individual attending the annual meeting and for all claims which may arise out of the use of the techniques demonstrated therein by such individuals whether these claims shall be asserted by physician or any other person.
  • A Multicenter Study of the Presentation, Treatment, and Outcomes of Cervical Dural Tears

    Introduction: There have been 2 single-center studies that reported on the outcomes following the unintentional cervical dural tears, and have estimated the incidence of this complication to be 1%. Despite reviewing thousands of patients in these studies, the overall number of patients with a dural tear was low.  Because of the rarity of this complication, even experienced surgeons with large cervical spine practices may have limited experience with cervical dural tear management.
  • Disability and Impairment of the Upper Limb and how they define the Patient with Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy (DCM)

    Introduction: Individuals with degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) can present with profound disability. One main consequence of DCM is loss or reduction of upper limb function. Identifying and validating methods for assessment of DCM is imperative for management of this disease. The World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning defines impairment as loss of body structures and function, and disability as loss of ability. This study defines upper limb impairment as neurological deficit, characterized by sensory, motor and complex hand function tasks. Upper limb disability is defined as the inability to perform activities of daily living and characterized by the QuickDASH.
  • Cervical Intervertebral Disc and Paraspinal Muscle Deconditioning following Long-Duration Spaceflight and 30-Day Recovery

    Introduction: Exposure to microgravity during long-duration spaceflights lengthens the spine. Additionally, there is a 4-fold greater incidence of herniated nucleus pulposus particularly in the cervical region, compared with age-matched ground military flight controls. Concurrent muscle atrophy or deconditioning may also contribute to increased HNP risk. There is a paucity of spaceflight induced cervical spine deconditioning data.  We hypothesize cervical intervertebral disk (IVD) heights will increase following a 6-month International Space Station (ISS) mission and decrease after 30 days return to Earth. In addition, we hypothesize that spaceflight will result in paraspinal muscle atrophy but recover 30 days after flight.
  • Outcomes and Complications of Fusions from the Cervical Spine to the Pelvis: Series of 46 Cases with Average 2.7-Year Follow-up

    Introduction: The increasing incidence of adult deformity sometimes requires primary or revision operations with fusions extending up into the cervical spine. The purpose of this study is to determine outcomes in this subset of patients utilizing the Scoliosis Research Society 22 (SRS-22r) questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Neck Disability Index (NDI) health related quality of life measures (HRQOLs). Methods: A multicenter retrospective review was performed to identify patients with a UIV at any level in the cervical spine and an LIV in the sacrum/pelvis.
  • Risk Factors for Dysphagia in Acute Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    Introduction: Dysphagia following traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) is an under-recognized complication that can lead to aspiration pneumonia, which is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Several authors have investigated dysphagia associated with CSCI, however, risk factors for dysphagia are still not well understood. The objective of this study was to elucidate the incidence and risk factors of dysphagia in patients with acute CSCI. Methods: A total of 464 consecutive patients with traumatic cervical spinal injury with and without spinal cord damage were treated at our institute and were registered in a database from January 2007 to December 2014. All patients underwent CT, MRI, and neurological examination on admission.
  • An In Vitro Evaluation of Sagittal Alignment in the Cervical Spine after Insertion of Supraphysiologic Lordotic Implants

    Introduction: Abnormal changes in cervical spine alignment can result in fatigue and neck pain as a result of extensor muscle recruitment to maintain horizontal gaze. When surgery is used to treat a degenerative and sagittal plane deformity, it is important to understand the compensatory mechanisms that influence this reconstructive effort which may result in unintended postoperative malalignment. The use of implants with supraphysiologic lordosis (SL) has become of increasing interest to treat sagittal plane deformities of the cervical spine.
  • Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Palsy after Cervical Spine Surgery – A Multicenter Study

    Introduction: Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) palsy is a known potential complication following anterior cervical spine surgery. Methods: A multicenter retrospective study was performed to determine the incidence of RLN palsy following anterior cervical spine surgery. A total of 1,345 patients were screened. Demographic variables, modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) score, Nurick score, and symptom resolution were recorded from clinical notes.