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    CSRS
    The material presented at the CSRS Annual Meetings has been made available by the Cervical Spine Research Society for educational purposes only. The material is not intended to represent the only, nor necessarily best method or procedure appropriate for the medical situations discussed, but rather is intended to present an approach, view, statement or opinion of the faculty which may be helpful to others who face similar situations. The CSRS disclaims any and all liability for injury or other damages resulting to any individual attending the annual meeting and for all claims which may arise out of the use of the techniques demonstrated therein by such individuals whether these claims shall be asserted by physician or any other person.
  • Cervical Spine Fusion: 16-Year Trends in Epidemiology, Indications, and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Utilization by Surgical Approach

    Introduction: Studies analyzing nationwide databases have demonstrated progressive growth in the annual volume of cervical spine fusions. The explanation for increased adoption may be multi-factorial: advances in operative techniques, improvements in instrumentation systems, expanded indications, and improved peri-operative medical management have improved outcomes. The Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) mid-2008 warning against the use of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in cervical spine fusion was another notable event.
  • Efficacy of a Short Plate with an Oblique Screw Trajectory for Anterior Cervical Plating: A Comparative Study with a Two-Year Minimum Follow-up

    Introduction: It has been reported that adjacent segment ossification development (ASOD) commonly occurs after anterior cervical arthrodesis. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of the short plate and oblique screw trajectory with the traditional long plate and parallel screw trajectory by investigating the incidence of ASOD and graft subsidence. Materials/Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the patients who underwent single level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with plate augmentation in our institute between June 2003 and August 2011.
  • Comparison of One- and Two-Level Treatment with Cervical Disc Arthroplasty or Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion through Five-Year Follow-up

    Introduction: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) has been a widely accepted procedure for years. There has been variation in reported results for two-level ACF. Cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) has been gaining acceptance for single-level treatment and more data is becoming available for two-level. The purpose of this analysis was to compare the safety and effectiveness of one and two level treatment with CDA or anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Materials/Methods: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial in the U.S. compared CDA using Mobi-C© Cervical Disc Prosthesis and the ACDF control with allograft and anterior plate at one or two contiguous levels.
  • Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID) of the JOA Score and 10-Second Test in Cervical Myelopathy Disorders

    Introduction: When we evaluate the degree of myelopathy, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and the 10-second test are usually used. However, the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) for these measures is rarely reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate MCIDs for JOA score and 10-second test in cervical myelopathy disorders. Patients and Method: The JOA decided to revise the JOA score for patients with cervical myelopathy and to develop a new outcome measure.
  • Clearing the C-Spine in Obtunded Trauma Patients Based on Admission CT: A Prospective Randomized Trial

    Introduction: The protocol surrounding cervical spine clearance in the obtunded blunt trauma patient with a normal cervical CT scan is highly debated and lacks standardization.  This results in disjointed management of c-collar precautions and prolongs unnecessary immobilization in a potentially compromised patient. C-collars are associated with many complications including respiratory deterioration, skin breakdown, and venous thrombosis.
  • The Pathomecahnisms of Dysphagia after Occipitospinal Fusion – Kinematic Analysis by Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study

    Introduction: Dysphagia is one of serious complications of occipitospinal fusion (OSF). It has been suggested that posterior shift of mandible and tongue root caused by the reduction of the occipito-C2 angle (O-C2A) makes the oropharyngeal space narrow and resulted in postoperative dysphagia. In fact, there has been little tangible evidence to support this hypothesis. The aim of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of dysphagia after OSF by analyzing swallowing process using the videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS). Materials and Methods: A total of 42 patients underwent OSF between 2005 and 2014 and six patients experienced postoperative dysphagia.
  • Is it Necessary to Extend a Multilevel Posterior Cervical Decompression and Fusion to the Upper Thoracic Spine?

    Introduction: Multilevel posterior cervical decompression and fusions are common procedures for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. While often the neural elements can be decompressed adequately with a decompression and fusion ending at C7, many surgeons elect to extend the fusion into the upper thoracic spine rather than stopping a long construct at the cervicothoracic junction. The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a difference in either the revision rate or the cervical alignment in patients who undergo a multilevel posterior cervical fusions ending at C7 or the upper thoracic spine.