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    CSRS
    The material presented at the CSRS Annual Meetings has been made available by the Cervical Spine Research Society for educational purposes only. The material is not intended to represent the only, nor necessarily best method or procedure appropriate for the medical situations discussed, but rather is intended to present an approach, view, statement or opinion of the faculty which may be helpful to others who face similar situations. The CSRS disclaims any and all liability for injury or other damages resulting to any individual attending the annual meeting and for all claims which may arise out of the use of the techniques demonstrated therein by such individuals whether these claims shall be asserted by physician or any other person.
  • Programmed Freeze/Thaw Method Dramatically Improved Cell Viability of IPS Cell-derived Neural Stem Cells for Clinical Application in Spinal Cord Injury

    Background: Recently, we have reported the effectiveness of transplanting human iPS cell-derived neural stem cells (iPS-NSCs) for subacute spinal cord injury (SCI) in mice as well as common marmosets. Because it takes about 6 months to establish iPS-NSCs derived from SCI patient’s own somatic cells, at present, it is impossible to perform autograft of iPS-NSCs within an optimal therapeutic time window for subacute SCI.
  • Does the Timing of Pre-operative Epidural Steroid Injection affect Infection Risk after ACDF or Posterior Cervical Fusion?

    Introduction: Cervical epidural steroid injections (ESI) are commonly performed for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes for patients with cervical spine disease prior to surgical intervention. Data regarding any association between preoperative cervical ESI and risk of postoperative infection following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) or posterior cervical fusion is limited. The goal of the present study is to employ a national database to evaluate the association of preoperative cervical ESI at various time intervals prior to ACDF or posterior cervical fusion with the incidence of postoperative infection.
  • Is Preoperative Duration of Symptoms a Significant Predictor of Functional Status and Quality of Life Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Surgery for the Treatment of Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy?

    Introduction: Longstanding compression of the spinal cord in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) may result in irreversible neural tissue damage. This study aims to analyze whether a longer duration of symptoms influences surgical outcomes and to determine the optimal timing for decompressive surgery Methods: Three hundred and fifty patients with symptomatic DCM were prospectively enrolled in either the CSM-North America or International study at 12 sites in North America.
  • ACDF with Total En Bloc Resection of Uncinate in Foraminal Stenosis of the Cervical Spine: Comparison with Conventional ACDF

    Introduction: Foraminal stenosis is a major cause of radiculopathy. Most of the foraminal stenosis is due to hypertrophied uncinate process or osteophyte from uncovertebral joints.  To relieve the radiculopathy, ACDF is the most frequently performed procedure. No studies have been performed comparing ACDF with and without uncinate resection.  Purpose of this study was to find out any differences in clinical outcomes of ACDF depending on uncinate resection or not. Methods: 606 patients who underwent ACDF due to foraminal stenosis were included in this study.
  • Morbidity and Mortality Associated with Transoral Approaches to the Cervical Spine

    Introduction: Anterior approaches to the cervical spine can be an elegant and practical way to address anterior pathology. The transoral approach provides a direct access to C1, C2, and less commonly C3 without manipulation of critical structures, however, due to its rarity and unfamiliar anatomy, significant morbidity and mortality exist. The aim of this study was to analyze morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing transoral approaches to the cervical spine using a large national database.
  • The Profile of a Smoker and its Impact on Outcomes after Cervical Spine Surgery

    Objective: Smoking has been associated with worse self-reported outcomes in patients undergoing degenerative lumbar spine surgery. Current focus is on decreasing cost and complications while improving outcomes. This potentially can be accomplished by acting on modifiable preoperative patient characteristics such as smoking. However, the impact of smoking on outcomes following degenerative cervical spine surgery is poorly understood.  The aim of the study is to understand impact of smoking on patient reported outcomes after degenerative cervical spine surgery. Methods: A total of 473 patients enrolled in a prospective longitudinal registry undergoing degenerative cervical degenerative surgery over a period of one year were included in the study.
  • Missing Data May Invalidate Spine Surgery Database Studies

    Introduction: National databases are increasingly being used for research in spine surgery, as they offer significant power for analyses. However, these databases have significant limitations. One limitation that has received sparse mention in the literature is the prevalence of missing data. Studies using these databases often do not mention the percent of missing data for each variable used, and do not make note of how patients with missing data are incorporated into analyses. This study uses the American College of Surgeons National Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database to illustrate how different treatments of missing data can significantly skew the results of spine studies.