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    CSRS
    The material presented at the CSRS Annual Meetings has been made available by the Cervical Spine Research Society for educational purposes only. The material is not intended to represent the only, nor necessarily best method or procedure appropriate for the medical situations discussed, but rather is intended to present an approach, view, statement or opinion of the faculty which may be helpful to others who face similar situations. The CSRS disclaims any and all liability for injury or other damages resulting to any individual attending the annual meeting and for all claims which may arise out of the use of the techniques demonstrated therein by such individuals whether these claims shall be asserted by physician or any other person.
  • Transplantation of Human IPS Cell-Derived Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Enriched Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells in Chronic and Subacute Spinal Cord Injury

    Background: Previously we have reported the efficacies of human iPS cell-derived oligodendrocyte precursor cells enriched neural stem/progenitor cells (hiPSC-OPCs enriched NS/PCs) transplantation for subacute spinal cord injury (SCI) in adult mice.  On the other hand, we have reported that there are limits to functional recovery by transplantation of NS/PCs for chronic SCI. It was partly because of inadequate remyelination of surviving axons by transplanted cells. It is well known that remyelination of demyelinated axons could be a viable target in transplantation therapy for chronic SCI.  Since hiPSC-OPCs enriched NS/PCs have potentials to differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes, these cells might be effective for the chronic SCI by remyelinating demyelinated axons in the injured spinal cord.
  • Cervical Facet Dislocations in the Pediatric Population: A Report of 21 Cases at a Level-1 Trauma Center from 2004-2014

    Introduction: Cervical facet dislocation in the pediatric population is rare. 10 total patients to date have been reported to date. When compared to the adult population, the distinctive anatomical and biomechanical differences lead to distinctive clinical manifestation in the setting of cervical facet injuries. The purpose of this study is to present a series of 21 pediatric patients with cervical facet dislocations that presented to our institution in order to identify the unique features of their injury. Method: Between 2004 and 2014, a retrospective review at Harborview Medical Center identified 141 patients with unilateral or bilateral dislocated facet(s). 21 pediatric patients were identified.
  • A Clinical Prediction Rule for Functional Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Severe Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: Analysis of an International AOSpine Prospective Multicentre Dataset of 254 Subjects

    Objectives: Patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) may be severely impaired, have reduced quality of life and present with deleterious signs and symptoms.  Patients with severe myelopathy (mJOA < 12) often improve following surgery; however, some may not achieve a minimum clinically important difference (MCID), whereas others may have exceptional outcomes. Due to varying prognoses among this group, it is important to predict outcome in these patients and use this knowledge to manage expectations. This study aims to determine the most important clinical predictors of surgical outcome in patients with severe CSM.
  • Predictive Model for Cervical Alignment Outcomes following Surgical Correction of Adult Spinal Deformity

    Introduction: Cervical deformity (CD) following surgical correction of adult spinal deformity (ASD) has been defined by the following measurements: CL > 20°, C2-C7 SVA > 40mm, or C2-C7 kyphosis >10°. While several studies have analyzed predictors of developing CD, few have defined and identified predictors of optimal cervical alignment (CA) following thoracolumbar corrective surgery. This study uses advanced predictive modeling to identify predictors of developing sub-optimal cervical alignment for surgical ASD patients.
  • Noninvasive Evaluation by Magnetospinography of Electrophysiological Activity in the Cervical Spine after Peripheral Nerve Stimulation in Humans

    Purpose: Conventional electrophysiological diagnostic techniques such as somatosensory evoked potentials, electromyography, and motor evoked potentials cannot be used to diagnose small lesions of the spinal cord or spinal nerves. Although nerve potential recordings using the inching technique can be used to reveal the position of lesions, electrodes must be placed close to the nerves to obviate distortion of currents by bone and other tissue. Thus, this invasive technique is typically used for only intraoperative measurements. In contrast, magnetic fields generated by neuronal currents are less affected by surrounding tissues and so may be used for high-resolution surface recordings of neural activity.
  • Cost Effectiveness of Operative vs. Non-operative Treatment of Geriatric Type-II Odontoid Fracture

    Introduction: Significant controversy exists regarding the optimum treatment of geriatric patients with type-II odontoid fractures. Operative treatment leads to lower rates of non-union, but carries surgical risks. Non-operative treatment does not carry the risks of surgery, but has higher rates of non-union. The objective of this study is to examine the cost-effectiveness of operative vs. non-operative treatment of type-II odontoid fractures in patients over 64 years old. Materials/Methods: A decision-analytic model as seen in Figure 1, was created to compare operative and non-operative treatment of type-II odontoid fractures among three different age cohorts (65–74, 75–84, over-84) based on expected costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (cost per QALY gained).
  • Influence of the Neck Postural Change on Cervical Spine Motion and Angle during Swallowing

    Introduction: Cervical retraction position after occipito-cervical fixation is dangerous because of post-operative dysphagia. Reduction of the occipito-C2 angle makes the mandible shift posteriorly, resulting in oropharyngeal airway stenosis. In normal position, the cervical spine moves to reduce physiological lordosis during swallowing. To our knowledge, there are no data demonstrating an association between cervical posture change and cervical spine motion/angle during swallowing. The purpose of the study was to investigate influence of the neck postural change on cervical spine motion and angle during swallowing.