• DIFFERENTIAL IMMUNOREACTIVITY TO GALECTIN-3 IN HERNIATED AND NON-HERNIATED INTERVERTEBRAL DISC

    INTRODUCTION: Galectin-3, galactose binding lectin (formerly named Mac-2) is involved in numerous cellular processes (regulation of cell growth and differentiation, apoptosis, neoplastic transformation, metastatic penetration, and cell adhesion to matrix and to surrounding cells). Galectin-3 is also involved in the mechanism of inflammation. Recent studies have shown that intervertebral disc (IVD) cells do not present Galectin-3 in the intact IVD but do become immunoreactive to Galectin-3 in cell culture and cell smear. This phenomenon may be a cellular reaction to environmental changes. Changes in the cellular environment occur also in disc herniation. Knowledge of the pattern of Galectin-3 expression in herniated and non-herniated intervertebral disc is important for understanding the mechanism of inflammation in intervertebral disc herniation.
  • HIGHER BONE GRAFT FORCE HELPS IN STABILIZING ANTERIOR CERVICAL MULTI-LEVEL PLATE SYSTEM

    INTRODUCTION: The anterior cervical plate system is widely used in stabilizing the cervical corpectomy. Many factors such as the applied screw torque, screw pullout force, plate strength, plate geometry and type of graft have been studied. However, the role of graft force in stabilizing the anterior plate system has not been explored. In this study, we first find the graft force variation during physiologic loading, and then determine the stability of low and high graft force provided by an anterior cervical plate for both one-level and three-level corpectomy models. METHOD: Six fresh human cadaveric cervical spines (C2-Th1) were dissected preserving the osteoligamentous structure. Following radiographic screening, C2 and Th1 were mounted to place C5 vertebra horizontally. One-level (C5) and three-level (C4, C5 and C6) corpectomy with plate stabilization (Cervical Spine Locking Plate: Synthes) were prepared.
  • MULTI-LEVEL ANTERIOR CERVICAL RECONSTRUCTION: COMPARISON OF SURGICAL TECHNIQUES AND RESULTS

    INTRODUCTION: Due to the relative infrequency of cervical corpectomies involving two or more vertebrae, little comparative information exists regarding different reconstruction techniques. An independent retrospective investigation was undertaken to compare union rates and other com METHODS: The medical records and radiographs of 49 patients who underwent multi-level cervical corpectomies ( two vertebrae, or three motion segments) by a single surgeon were retrospectively reviewed by an independent
  • DYNAMIC MRI STUDY IN POSTOPERATIVE PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL MYELOPATHY

    INTRODUCTION: There has been no previous studies which evaluated morphological changes of the spinal cord in flexion and extension after posterior decompression of the cervical spine (laminoplasty). To clarify the relationship between clinical recovery and dynamic cord compression after surgery, cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained in flexion and extension in patients who underwent posterior decompression. METHODS: The subjects were 25 patients (19 men, 6 women) who had posterior decompression from C3 to C7 due to cervical myelopathy. The ages at the examination ranged from 41 to 75 years (average, 61 years). Their diagnoses were cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) in 14 patients and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) in 11 patients.
  • INTRAOPERATIVE MUSCLE MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIAL MONITORING; TRANSCRANIAL ELECTRIC VS MAGNETIC STIMULATION

    INTRODUCTION: Muscle motor evoked potential (muscle MEP) monitoring after transcranial motor cortex stimulation is reliable neurophysiological assessment of the integrity of motor pathway in spine surgery, and indispensable technique in spinal cord tumors. Two method of transcranial stimulation was compared with its clinical significance and reliability. METHODS: Seventy-five patients between 12-78 years of age undergoing spine surgery were monitored by muscle MEP. Two anesthetic protocol, ketamine based anesthesia (group 1: 34 patients) and propofol based anesthesia (group 2: 41 patients), were examined. In group 1, paired magnetic stimulation was performed. In group 2, repetitive electrical stimulation (Digitimer D185) and paired magnetic stimulation (7 out of 41 patients) were performed. Neuromuscular blockade level was controlled using the microinfusion pump and the relaxograph.